Language-Change Index. The third edition of Garner's Modern American Usage reflects several new practices. Invariably inferior forms, for example, are now marked with asterisks preceding the term or phrase, a marking common in linguistics. The most interesting new feature is the Language-Change Index. Its purpose is to measure how widely accepted various linguistic innovations have become. Such a measuring system for usage guides was first proposed by Louis G. Heller and James Macris in 1967. They noted that "usage specialists can make a clear-cut demarcation of phases in the evolutionary process relevant to the inception and development of alternative terms." In these tips, the five stages are tagged as: Stage 1 ("rejected"): A new form emerges as an innovation (or a dialectal form persists) among a small minority of the language community, perhaps displacing a traditional usage (e.g.: "lightning" misspelled "lightening"). Stage 2 ("widely shunned"): The form spreads to a significant fraction of the language community but remains unacceptable in standard usage (e.g.: *"real trooper" for "real trouper"). Stage 3 ("widespread but . . ."): The form becomes commonplace even among many well-educated people but is still avoided in careful usage (e.g.: "criteria" used as a false singular for "criterion"). Stage 4 ("ubiquitous but . . ."): The form becomes virtually universal but is opposed on cogent grounds by a few linguistic stalwarts (die-hard snoots) (e.g.: "alibi" for "excuse"). Stage 5 ("fully accepted"): The form is universally accepted (not counting pseudo-snoot eccentrics) (e.g.: "raise" meaning "to bring up [children]"). *Invariably inferior forms. ——————– Quotation of the Day: "An abstract style is always bad. Your sentences should be full of stones, metals, chairs, tables, animals, men, and women." Alain de Lille (as quoted in Rudolf Flesch, The Art of Readable Writing 83 (1949; repr. 1967)).